The abuse of children

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The Abuse Of Children

They seemed to be a typical Toronto couple, struggling to live in an expensive city with two young children. To avoid the high cost of day car, she worked night shifts as a hospital nurse whenever she could, leaving her husband, who worked during the day for an electronics firm, to look after the children. Then, during the summer of 1985, her four-year-old daughter complained of pain and bleeding around her rectum. Despite doctors’ assurances that there was no cause for concern, the woman said that she was diturbed when the problems persisted. Acting on a hunch, she asked her daughter, “Would this go away if Daddy went on a vacation?” The girl replied, “Yes.” It is now 4-1/2 years since the woman, who asked to remai anonymous, discovered that her husband was sexually abusing their daughter, but even now, she says, her feelings of guilt and anger remain. “It shook my concept of the world,” she told Maclean’s. Now 32, divorced and recovering after extensive counselling by Children’s Aid workers, she added, “I thought sexual abuse only happened in really dreadful, disturbed families–until I found it in my own home.”

Victims: To their horror, Canadians are discovering that children of both sexes, of all ages and from all social and economic backgrounds can be the victims of sexual abuse. Increasingly, through the 1980s, doctors, child-care workers and legal personnel have witnessed an explosion in the number of reported cases of all kinds of child abuse–emotional and physical. But it is the rapid increase in reports of sexual assaults involving children that has aroused the greatest concern. Last year, in Ontario alone, the provincial ministry of community and social services received 933 reports of sexual abuse involving children of 18 and younger, compared with only 286 cases in 1980. In Nova Scotia, the provincial department of community services recorded 116 cases of child sexual abuse in 1987, compared with three in 1980. In Quebec, where no separate figures for sexual abuse were available, the province’s association of social service centres reported 27,940 cases of abuse, including sexual, involving children in 1988, compared with 17,145 in 1981-1982.

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Because experts say that many cases of sexual abuse remain hidden, the real numbers are probably much higher. But the estimates are shocking: according to a 1984 report of a royal commission under sociologist Robin Badgley, one in two females and one in three males have been the victims of unwanted sexual acts–and 80 per cent experienced the assaults as children. Statistics show that men–fathers, stepfathers, boyfriends and other males–are the culprits in more than 90 per cent of child sexual-abuse cases, while women are about equally as likely as men to subject children to nonsexual physical abuse.

The sexual molestation of children occurs in a wide variety of circumstances. Last month in Calgary, 41-year-old Dennis Anguish, a member of the Big Brothers Organization that looks after fatherless boys, was convicted of sexually assaulting seven boys. Testimony indicated that Anguish performed oral sex on them. In May, 44-year-old Theodore Bugg, a former public-school teacher, was sentenced to 33 months in prison in Simcoe, Ont., after he pleaded guilty to sexually assaulting two 11-year-old boys and a 10-year-old girl. A Nova Scotia man was convicted of sexually abusing his nine-year-old daughter, whose name cannot be revealed. The girl’s doctor said that, after watching a program involving child abuse, the girl told her mother that her father had been forcing her to perform sexual acts on him for five years. He will be sentenced in December.

But experts say that the dramatic rise in reported cases of sexual abuse does not mean that it is increasing. Instead, they say that the statistics simply reflect society’s growing willingness to acknowledge the situation. “I don’t think the problem has grown at all,” said Joseph Rosen, executive director of the B.C. Parents in Crisis Society in Vancouver. “We just do a better job of recognizing it now.”

During the past year, the issue has come sharply into focus as a result of the scandal that has shaken Newfoundland’s Roman Catholic community (page 66). Since September, 1988, when a judge sentenced a St. John’s priest to five years in jail for 20 sexual offences involving altar boys, a total of 19 priests, lay brothers and other members of the Catholic community have been charged or convicted of sex-related offences involving boys in Newfoundland. At least five more members of the church have been charged or convicted of similar crimes in other parts of Canada.

In St. John’s , a royal commission inquiry under former Ontario Supreme Court justice Samuel Hughes has heard accounts of sexual acts involving members of the lay order of Christian Brothers and the boys in their care at Newfoundland’s Mount Cashel orphanage. Some of the most distrubing testimony was that of Shane Earle, a former Mount Cashel resident who said that he was sexually molested by a Christian Brother at the age of 6 when he first arrived at the orphanage. Weeping at times, Earle, now 23, testified that his treatment at Mount Cashel led him to attempt suicide in 1985.

Trauma: Like Earle, many victims of child abuse suffer from long-term psychological problems. Some, including author Elly Danica, who survived nine years of sexual abuse by her father, block the memories of the abuse for years (page 64). Doctors say that other victims of childhood sexual abuse deal with the trauma by escaping into a psychological condition called multiple personality disorder (page 60).

Increasingly, there is evidence to suggest that some young victims of sexual abuse are molested during rituals that have satanic overtones. During the past decade, child-care officials in Canada, the United States and Britain have investigated a growing number of cases in which children have said that they were subjected to sexual abuse during ghoulish rituals (page 62).

Suspicions: Although experts say that adults have used children sexually throughout history, it has only been in the past 10 years that awareness of widespread sexual abuse has grown among North American doctors, childcare workers and parents. According to Bruce Rivers, executive director of the Children’s Aid Society of Metropolitan Toronto, increased knowledge of the symptoms of abuse have prompted more people to report their suspicions. “Before, it was considered to be more rare and rather taboo,” said Rivers. “People thought they shouldn’t talk about these things and that children were making things up.” Said Calgary psychologist John Pearce, co-ordinator of clinical services in the Alberta Children’s Hospital child-abuse program: “The Victorians had a myth about the family’s invincibility. But sex abuse happened there, although it was not recognized. Today, people are more aware of abuse, how it shows itself, what to look for.”

Men who sexually molest children generally fall into one of two groups. Dr. John Bradford, a professor of psychiatry at the Universityof Ottawa, said that many men who sexually assault their own children often do so as a way of finding sexual release during periods of emotional or financial stress. A second group of offenders is made up of pedophiles, who suffer from a lifelong sexual attraction to children. Bradford said taht new research carried out at the Royal Ottawa Hospital has pointed to the possibility that biological abnormalities may be at the root of pedophilic behavior. “Each offender has different needs that are satisfied by molesting children,” said Ronald LaTorre, co-ordinator for the B.C. Sex Offender Assessment and Treatment Program in Vancouver. “Some will do it for love, some for affection, some for power, control or aggression.”

Instincts: With growing awareness of the problem, efforts are being made to protect children by making them aware that some kinds of physical acts by adults should not be permitted. Children in many Canadian primary and elementary schools are shown a 1985 film entitled Feeling Yes, Feeling No. In Toronto, grade-school children see a play entitled Journey from A.M.U. (All Mixed Up). It teaches children to trust their instincts about what feels good and what feels bad. “It teaches children they have their rights too,” said Sgt. Julia Montrose, the Metropolitan Toronto Police Department’s child-abuse co-ordinator. “And a lot of people have found that as soon as one of those plays is shown, there is an increase in disclosures.”

In fact, doctors say that it is often difficult to detect some kinds of sexual abuse. While the results of severe physical abuse are usually obvious, the effects of emotional and sexual abuse can be far more insidious. Experts assume that detectable emotional damage always occurs if a child is abused. But they often have to rely on children to disclose sexual abuse. Because of the secretive way adults go about seducing children, many young victims are reluctant to talk about it. “The suspect literally courts th child,” said Montrose. “The suspect will say things like, ‘This is our little secret.’ The whole area is very, very difficult for police and child workers.”

Neglect: Faced with the growing reality of widespread sexual abuse, police, teachers and social workers are struggling to develop ways of protecting children. Hospitals and police departments in many Canadian cities now have child-abuse teams that are specially trained to detect and help young victims. Typically, Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children launched a Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect program in 1973. Since then, the program’s case load has grown rapidly, according to program director Dr. Marcellina Mian. In 1988, said Mian, the special team of six experts handled 843 suspected cases, compared with 386 in 1981. Sixty per cent of the cases turned out to involve sexually abused children.

At the same time, Canadian police forces are confronting a growing number of sexual-abuse cases. By September this year, the Calgary Police Department’s child-abuse unit had laid 310 charges of sexual and other child abuse–compared with 137 charges in the first time months of 1988. Many police officers say that they find dealing with sexual-abuse cases emotionally stressful. Calgary police Det. Harvey Cemaiko said that, in one of his most wrenching cases, a three-month-old baby girl contracted a sexually transmitted anal infection after one of her parents abused her. Said Cemaiko: “You name it, it can happen.”

Part of the responsibility for discovering evidence of abuse lies with teachers, who are often tipped off by revealing changes in the behavior patterns of children. Many schools have begun to provide brochures and training workshops to make teachers more aware of child abuse. Sexually abused children can sometimes be spotted, said Christina Melnechuk, a child and family counsellor at the Vancouver Incest and Sexual Abuse Centre, because they may exhibit inappropriate sexual behavior or knowledge for their ages.

Resentful: As children become more aware of the dangers of sexual abuse, some teachers say that they run the risk of being accused of abuse themselves. Karen Duerden, president of the Nova Scotia Teachers Union, said that a child who is resentful because a teacher handed out a low grade or failed to pay enough attention to the child may get even with the teacher by claiming abuse. “It makes teachers extremely sensitive,” said Duerden. “Many will no longer give the hug a kid needs.”

Still, Toronto’s Rivers said that false allegations of sexual abuse by children are relatively infrequent and, when they do occur, “they are rarely initiated by the child.” Usually, Rivers added, false allegations originate with parents in custody disputes. For her part, Myra Lefkowitz, co-ordinator of Toronto’s child victim witness-support program, said that such allegations often arise out of a misinterpretation of a child’s description of an event. “Child abuse is always foggy,” said Lefkowitz. “You never really get every detail.”

Wounds: Psychiatrists and others who work with victims of childhood sexual abuse say that the wounds can be deep and lasting. But they add that boys and girls may react differently. “Boys are not used to being victims,” said David Wellings, regional child-abuse prevention co-ordinator in Alberta’s ministry of family and social services. “They’re more accustomed to being in charge.” Once they have been sexually abused, Wellings added, boys tend to act out their victimization through aggressive behavior towards others–often becoming sexual offenders themselves. Girls, Wellings said, frequently turn on themselves, escaping from their feelings of guilt and remorse through alcohol, drugs and prostitution.

As well, young victims of sexual abuse often experience fear, along with feelings of guilt or shame. Melnechuk recalled how a five-year-old child would become quiet and passive when her abusive father entered the room. According to Melnechuk, the little girl believed tht the abuse she experienced was her own fault. “The child cannot say, ‘My parents are bad,'” said Melnechuk. “And they also think that, because their body feels good when it happens, this is another betrayal.”

Sexual abuse, particularly by someone in a position of trust, can have a devastating impact on a child. Linda LeBrun, 39, a co-ordinator at the B.C. Child Abuse Research and Education Production Association, recalled that when she was 9, a relative took her for walks at a cottage near Cornwall, Ont., and sexually abused her. She added, “If i resisted, he would say, ‘I’ll tell your parents, and you’ll get in trouble.'” After the abuse stopped, Lebrun said that she confessed what had happened to a priest, who only scolded her. As a result, LeBrun became withdrawn and untrusting. “It never dawned on me to be angry,” she said. “You think you are a bad person. At that point, I just kept it secret.”

Canadian hospitals and social agencies have begun to set up programs to treat young victims of sexual abuse, often using play and art therapy to help victims who cannot easily express their feelings in words. As well, group therapy is used to help victims share their pain and guilt with others. Gemma Matthey, a social worker at Montreal’s Ville Marie Social Services organization, said that when children “really trust everybody in the group, they’re capable of expressing their feelings, like what it was like when it happened or why they did not tell someone right away.”

Apart from sexual abuse, children have been also forced to do housework (like gardening, floor cleaning – statistics by SpinMobReviews.com, a website reviewing the best mop in US)

Liars: Meanwhile, changes in the law and courtroom procedures have helped to reduce some of the terror of courtroom appearances for children who testify in abuse cases. In the past, judges have sometimes dismissed cases against suspected child molesters because children were afraid to testify. According to Toronto’s Lefkowitz, many children worry that the accused—who may be a relative–will call them liars. Under a Criminal Code amendment that came into effect last year, videotaped statements by children ca now be accepted in some cases as evidence. And court officials may, under certain circumstances, install screens to shield children from potentially intimidating glances of the accused.

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Treating offenders in the hope that they will not molest children again has met with mixed success. According to Bradford, men who have had sexual relations with their own children are relatively easy to treat and infrequent re-offend. During therapy, offenders learn how to alter their thinking patterns and to develop greater self-control. Experts say that marital difficulties, as well as drug or alcohol problems, often play a part in driving such offenders to seek sexual gratification with children.

But Bradford added that treating pedophiles is more complicated. As well, pedophiles are more likely to repeat their offence–even after being treated. As a result, doctors may administer hormonal agents or drugs from a family of chemicals known as anti-androgens, which decrease production of the male hormone testosterone. Those drugs, which Bradford likens to a “chemical castration,” help to reduce the pedophile’s sex drive and suppress deviant sexual fantasies. Added Bradford: “It gives them control.”

Attitudes: Experts in the field say that many offences against children, including physical and sexual abuse, are rooted in certain adult attitudes towards children. “Society still regards children as property,” said Pearce. “It regards spanking as okay. And from there, some people get the idea that it is all right to do anything to kids.” At the same time, Rivers said that the increased reporting of child sexual abuse reflected a change in fundamental attitudes towards children. As adults become more aware of the sexual abuse of children, said Rivers, children also are learning that they have rights. But no matter how sophisticated they may become, children cannot be relied upon to protect themselves–and need to be able to trust adults to do that for them.

Meanwhile, the 32-year-old Toronto woman reports that her daughter is regaining her feelings of trust in adults. The girl, who is now 9, still sleeps with her head under the covers at night. But it has been a year since he saw her father–who, until then, had limited supervised-visitation rights–and her confidence has started to return. “It’s now sort of an incident in the past to us,” said her mother. “I think she understands that what happened to her was something unique to her father.” But childcare workers agree that people must learn that the only real protection for children is prevention–because even a single act of sexual violence can leave scars that last a lifetime.

>>> View more:  The scientific war on child abuse

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A study conducted about sexual abuse in the classroom revealed that the use of comprehensive prevention programs are effective prevention measures. The program helps prevent sexual abuse by training them on how to fend for themselves in real-life situations.

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There’s little evidence that classroom programs help prevent sexual abuse.

ALMOST TWO-THIRDS of the nation’s elementary-school districts require classroom training in sexual-abuse prevention. Despite the popularity of prevention programs, there is a serious debate among professionals about whether the lessons work and should be expanded or whether the vast amount of resources they consume might be used in other ways to protect children more effectively. Recent findings from a major study claim to settle the issue with the discovery that comprehensive prevention programs really do protect children.

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These findings have gained the kind of authority that is attributed to facts endorsed by The New York Times. On October 6, under the headline ABUSE-PREVENTION EFFORTS AID CHILDREN, the Times devoted almost a quarter of a page to an article extolling the benefits of sexual-abuse prevention training programs. A close look at the study, however, reveals a different story than the one told to the public. It is a story of how journalists are bamboozled by advocacy research advanced under the mantle of social science, how public funding is promoted for programs of dubious value, and how children may be jeopardized in the process.

The opening sentence of the Times article declares, “The first national survey to assess the effectiveness of school-based programs to prevent sexual abuse confirms that they help children in real-life encounters with potential child molesters.” Based on results from a representative national sample of 2,000 children who were interviewed on the telephone along with their parents, the study’s senior author, University of New Hampshire sociologist David Finkelhor, finds “that the kids who have gotten the better sexual abuse prevention programs do act better in the crunch.” By “better programs” he means those that were longest and most comprehensive in coverage of prevention concepts.

In the words of Times reporter Daniel Goleman, “The more comprehensive the training the more likely it was that the children would use strategies like yelling, saying no, or running away when threatened with sexual abuse. They also knew more than other children about the topic, felt more confident about their abilities to protect themselves, and were more likely to report any actual or attempted abuse to adults. On the other hand, children who had received the training were slightly more likely to suffer injury once a sexual assault began because they were more prone to fight back.”

This version of the study’s findings magnifies small differences that are insignificant and underplays large differences that may be seriously dangerous. Let’s look at the facts. Did children who participated in the comprehensive program have more knowledge about sexual-abuse prevention? Yes. On a 16-point scale, they scored an average of half a point higher than children who had never had any training. At the same time, the children who never had any training actually scored a whit higher than those who had participated in the prevention programs that were judged less comprehensive. If these findings are correct, about one-half of the schools that mandate this training are spending millions of dollars on brief, less-comprehensive prevention programs from which students emerge with no more knowledge than those who never participated. And even more funds are being spent on longer programs that increase knowledge by just a fraction of a point.

BUT WHAT ABOUT THE OTHER OUTCOMES? Does this slight increase in knowledge make a difference? Are the children who receive comprehensive sexual-abuse prevention training really acting better in the crunch? Finkelhor’s rigorous analysis of the data simply does not coincide with his optimistic interpretation of the results. Regarding the positive outcomes cited by Goleman, for all of the children abused and threatened by sexual abuse the data show no statistically significant differences between the behavior of those who had received no or minimal prevention training and those who had participated in the most comprehensive programs, when relevant factors such as age and gender are controlled.

AMONG THE SEXUALLY VICTIMIZED REspondents, children who received comprehensive training were not significantly more likely than the others to use the strategies, such as saying no or running away, that Finkelhor considers more effective. Nor did they differ significantly with regard to their sense of confidence in coping with their abusers, their disclosures of actual or attempted abuse, or their success in thwarting attempted abuse. There were small differences among the respondent groups on these outcome variables.

In some cases–for example, success in thwarting attempted abuse–children who received no training were a little more effective than those who participated in minimal or comprehensive prevention programs. This finding was not mentioned in the Times article. But in every case, judging by conventional scientific standards, we must conclude that the small differences found were likely to occur by chance.

On several other outcome variables, however, the differences were more pronounced and statistically significant. While Goleman reports that the children who received comprehensive training were only “slightly more likely to suffer injury once a sexual assault began” (emphasis added), the data show that in fact 15 percent of these children were injured, a rate more than three times that of those who received no training. And when threatened with sexual victimization, children who participated in comprehensive prevention training programs were more likely to employ strategies, such as crying and fighting back, that Finkelhor considers less effective (this may account for the higher injury rate).

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Although Finkelhor calls fighting back one of the “less preferred” responses, it is a protective strategy taught to children as young as 5 by one of the most widely used programs in the country, the Child Assault Prevention Program, developed by Women Against Rape in Columbus, Ohio. (This program also teaches children that a father’s pat on the behind can be a “bad touch” that should be reported to other adults.) Rather than “acting better in the crunch,” the firmest conclusion that can be drawn from these findings is that, when faced with the danger of sexual abuse, children who receive comprehensive training use less preferred strategies and get injured more than three times as often as children who received no training.

Are sexual prevention programs really that dangerous? These findings should not be taken too seriously. Professionals know that telephone surveys are rather unreliable as a method to evaluate anything as complex as the effectiveness of prevention programs or the way children respond to actual threats. Journalists should learn something about the limits of social research. The real message from this research for parents, school officials, and policy makers is that although sexual- abuse prevention training programs are well-intentioned efforts to protect children against a loathsome crime, there is no evidence that they work, or even on the margin that these efforts produce more good than harm–newspaper headlines on the subject notwithstanding.

Neil Gilbert is Chernin Professor of Social Welfare and co- chairman of the Berkeley Child Welfare Research Center. His most recent book is With the Best of Intentions: The Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Movement (written with Jill Duerr Berrick).

>>> Click here:  Your baby is counting on you: a county child abuse awareness campaign

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Your baby is counting on you: a county child abuse awareness campaign

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When Sheryl, 19, asked her new boyfriend, Todd, to take care of her eight-month-old baby while she went shopping, he agreed, hoping that the baby would sleep while he watched a football game on television. The baby was getting over a cold, however, and was fussy that afternoon. Todd found it impossible to calm the baby and watch the game. Exasperated by the crying, Todd grabbed the baby and shook him, yelling, “Stop crying. I want to watch the game!” When Sheryl came home an hour or so later, she found the baby in his crib, unresponsive and, as it turned out, very badly injured.

Too often we read newspaper stories like Sheryl’s, about parents who have left their infant or small child in the care of someone poorly equipped to care for that child. Too frequently the baby or child is horrifically injured, or even dies.

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Because of this incident and others like it, in April 2011, the annual Child Abuse Prevention Month campaign in Allegheny County (southwest Pennsylvania) focused on raising awareness about the importance of choosing a partner carefully and being thoughtful about the person in whose care you leave your baby or child.

The campaign, “Your Baby is Counting on You,” adapted materials (with permission) from similar campaigns implemented by partners in child welfare systems in New York and Ohio, Our aim was to reach a target audience of young parents. To help ensure that the campaign resonated with the target audience, we asked for feedback on the content and visual elements from pregnant and parenting teens and young adults attending classes at a local hospital and who were participating in parenting classes in Pittsburgh Public Schools.

We also asked teens and young adults who were aging out of the county’s child welfare system for their perspectives and their ideas about which radio stations we should use for the campaign’s public service announcements. Some of these young people served as spokespersons for the campaign in radio interviews and at a City Council hearing. The radio and television public service announcements were developed and produced by youth with the help of a local organization called Hip Hop on L.O.C.K., a youth-focused mentoring and arts education program that teaches leadership, organizational skills, cooperative economics, and knowledge of the music business.

The message urged parents of young children to: “Choose your partner carefully. Your child’s life depends on it. Never leave your child with someone you don’t trust to keep your child safe. Many children are harmed each year by unrelated adults who just don’t know how to take care of a child. Your baby is counting on you to make the right decision. ”

Family Resources, Allegheny County Department of Human Services, A Child’s Place at Mercy at Pittsburgh Mercy Health System, and UPMC begin planning in September every year for the following year’s campaign in April. Our partners include UPMC Health Plan, United Way, the Center for Minority Health, COMCAST, Pittsburgh Children’s Hospital, police departments, neighborhood-based health care facilities, businesses, local sports teams, universities, schools, radio stations, government, and other human service agencies. Each year the focus of the campaign is on a different aspect of child abuse prevention. Over the years, we have learned how to elicit input from our target audiences and how to test messages to increase their impact. Examples include:

* A campaign detailing how to soothe a crying baby–and stay calm yourself–that employed public service announcements (including radio ads that began with the sound of a wailing baby), bus advertising, local radio and television programming, magnets that were distributed through hospitals and physicians’ offices, and a web site at www.hushlittlebaby.org.

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* Broadly disseminating a series of five posters, each depicting a child or teen, with a message to parents or guardians who might be having trouble coping with a child’s behavior. The posters were displayed, through a partnership with Allegheny County Health Department, in restrooms, in restaurants, sports stadiums, museums, and other public venues.

For more information about our Child Abuse Prevention Month campaigns, please contact Karen L. Blumen, deputy director of the Office of Community Relations at the Allegheny County Department of Human Services, Karen.Blumen@allegheny-county.us or visit the web site at www.alleghenycounty.us/dhs/capm-overview.aspx.

Andi Fischhoff was the development director at Family Resources, the region’s largest private nonprofit agency dedicated to preventing and treating child abuse, a position she held for almost 20 years until May 2011.

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The Hidden Horror: Many elderly are abused by the people they trust the most — their own kids

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Despite everything, Janet* still remembers the good things about her son, Brian. The 69-year-old retired Alberta day-care worker says Brian, an only child, was devoted to her husband, a former oil company technician who suffers from Parkinson’s disease. “My son always took great care of his dad,” she says, but then added: “It was always me he picked on.” “Picked on” hardly describes the pain and suffering Brian inflicted if Janet refused his demands for money or said anything he didn’t like. “He would pin me up against the wall and grab my face or my neck, and squeeze until I’d repeat whatever he wanted me to,” she says, her voice trembling.

The worst attacks occurred when her son, in his 30s, moved back to his parents’ home after he lost his job last year. Janet says she knew she ought to have called the police, but after each incident, she succumbed to Brian’s appeasements, believing his contrition was real. But instead, the abuse grew worse, both in ferocity and frequency. The last straw for Janet came last January when, for the first time, she says, Brian attacked his partially paralyzed father, knocking him from his walker, pinning him to the ground and repeatedly spitting and screaming into the 70-year-old man’s face. Janet fled to a neighbour’s house and called authorities. “I lived in terror for years,” she says, her voice breaking, “and I became increasingly fearful for my life.”

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Tragically, Janet’s story is not uncommon. According to Elizabeth Podnieks, chairwoman of the board for the Ontario Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse, seven to 10 per cent of Canada’s 3.7 million seniors experience some form of emotional, physical and financial abuse, usually committed by the victims’ children and grandchildren. But the mistreatment is rarely reported and officially the percentage of those abused is four per cent. Battered parents are often too ashamed or afraid to speak out, and most times police and prosecutors are reluctant to take on what many view as family disputes. As well, the abuse can be difficult to detect. “Unless you’re looking for it, you won’t find it,” says Podnieks, who was awarded the Order of Canada this year for her groundbreaking 1991 study of elder abuse. “And people who don’t want to see it, won’t.”

Even seniors who speak out are often unable to convince authorities of their plight. Fred, a 78-year-old retired janitor from New Brunswick, claims his youngest son “stole” his house by coercing him to add the son and daughter-in-law’s names to the deed. Fred, who is illiterate, does not remember signing the document and chokes up with tears recalling the house he built with his brothers 51 years ago. He says his son and daughter-in-law, who had been living with him, wanted a newer house and had the old structure razed when Fred was hospitalized after a mini-stroke last December. “My house, my barn, my life: they tore it all down,” he says, crying. “I just want to go home and I can’t.”

Fred now lives with one of his daughters and has all but given up reclaiming his property. Because it is not a criminal case, he does not qualify for legal aid and, with the deed now in his son’s name, the onus is on the father to prove he did not willingly sign over the property. Fred says he has already spent $1,200 — mostly borrowed — on lawyer’s fees, and cannot afford the $3,000 he says it will take to go further. “There’s nothing more I can do,” he says.

Donald Poirier, a University of Moncton law professor who specializes in elder abuse legislation, says police have the legal backing to deal with physical and financial mistreatment of the elderly, even if they do not use it. “The legislation is in place,” he says. “It’s the application that is the problem.” Rules governing social service agencies vary according to province. The Atlantic provinces, which modelled their legislation after laws for the prevention of child abuse, give social workers the broadest scope to intervene directly to protect seniors. The remaining provinces also allow for intervention, but when they get to court, cases are governed by general laws, or laws pertaining to guardianship rather than to elder abuse.

According to Poirier, most financial impropriety, which accounts for about 60 per cent of documented elder-abuse cases, goes unchallenged. He says prosecutors are often unwilling to pursue cases, in part because “seniors are generally regarded as being less than credible witnesses.” His contention is supported by The Uniform Crime Reporting II Survey, which tracks all police reports in Canada. Experts estimate that 13,500 seniors in Canada have experienced financial abuse through the illegal use of power of attorney. But in the past three years, only five charges were laid for abuse of power of attorney and of those, all were later withdrawn or stayed. “That so few charges were laid is troubling,” says Charmaine Spencer, a research associate of Simon Fraser University’s Gerontology Centre who is studying the social and economic cost of abuse. “It’s unjust that seniors are carrying the full burden of fighting financial abuse on their own.”

Mark Lachs, a professor of geriatric medicine at the Cornell University Medical College in New York, conducted a 14-year study of seniors and says his findings show that abuse victims experience more serious health problems and shorter life expectancies than those who are not abused. Victims agree. Ontario resident Mary, 88, blames her recent heart attack on the turmoil of dealing with her 52-year-old son. She says he convinced her to move out of a seniors’ apartment complex and to buy a $250,000 bungalow for them to share. He then abandoned her, she says, after coercing her to sign a blank cheque. The former radio- show singer also claims he emptied their joint account for emergency funds, and charged his every purchase, including the Mother’s Day cards she still keeps, to her account. “He drove off in the car he bought with my money,” says Mary, who is now legally blind and moves with a walker, “and left me alone in this house.”

Despite victim reluctance, more cases of abuse are being reported. For instance, residents of traditionally closed aboriginal communities in the Northwest Territories are using a 1-800 helpline and workshops, says Esther Braden, an advocate with the NWT Seniors’ Society since 1983. “We’ve had calls from neighbours, and from family members on behalf of other family members,” says Braden. “People are starting to come forward.”

While government agencies and academics are working to help police detect and even prevent elder abuse, others are coping with the more immediate problem of caring for victims. Calgary’s Kerby Centre, a 26- year-old nonprofit resource centre for seniors, recently opened a 32- bed $1.7-million shelter to house increasing numbers of abused seniors. “The need for it is becoming very evident,” says volunteer Betty McCreight. Edmonton’s Catholic Social Services, meanwhile, which initiated elder-abuse programs a decade ago, joined forces with police and city-funded agencies last year to respond to crisis calls. “We try to educate both victims and perpetrators,” says Lori Therrien, a co- ordinator with Catholic Social Services, “and assess which options are best for the family.”

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But families often refuse the help that’s offered. Janet would not press charges against her son, Brian, even after he attacked his father, largely because she did not want to send their son to jail. Brian is now known to police and is required to keep away from his parents, but he maintains phone contact with them. “After all,” she explains, “he is still my child.” That parental bond often frustrates the efforts of care-workers, who strive to provide protection and support for vulnerable seniors. “We have to respect that they are still adults,” says Waltraud Grieger, executive director of Nova House, a shelter in Selkirk, Man. “And we have to respect their choices and options.” Even if those choices put them at further risk.

*All names of victims and their family members have been changed.

>>> View more:  After the earthquake: five reasons for hope after the sexual abuse scandal

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After the earthquake: five reasons for hope after the sexual abuse scandal

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The study of sexual abuse by members of the Catholic clergy in the United States since 1950, which was commissioned by the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops and conducted by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City, is scheduled for release during February 2004. This comprehensive study surveyed all Catholic dioceses in the United States about sexual abuse by members of the clergy. The report will likely cause another sizable earthquake in the church, as it will reveal many disturbing details about sexual abuse by Catholic clergymen. The report should receive a great deal of media and public attention as well as highlight the extent of the problem. It may be shocking and upsetting to read. In the spirit of earthquake preparedness (I am writing this from California, after all), I would like to outline five reasons for hope in anticipation of the release of this important report. But before doing so, it may be helpful to review briefly the recent earthquake activity in the Catholic Church in the United States.

The Catholic Church in the United States experienced a remarkably powerful and long-lasting earthquake that began on Jan. 6, 2002, when The Boston Globe published its first front-page news story about sexual abuse by clergy in the Archdiocese of Boston. The quake was one of the strongest, most destructive and long-lasting earth-shaking events that the Catholic Church in the United States has ever experienced. While the epicenter was Boston, a flurry of aftershocks hit various dioceses throughout the land. Before the year was over, about 350 American priests, including several bishops, were confronted with credible accusations of having sexually abused a child. Many of these men resigned. Many were sued. A number went to prison. A few even committed suicide or were murdered.

Throughout the ordeal, many Catholics have been shocked, angered, despondent, disgusted and demoralized over the numerous allegations of sexual misconduct among priests, as well as the manner in which many of these cases were mismanaged by bishops and other church leaders. Many priests have admitted that they feel uncomfortable wearing a Roman collar in public. Suddenly the Catholic Church seems to be stripped of moral authority and has become an organization that cannot be trusted to behave in an ethical, moral and compassionate manner. Some reports say that donations have decreased and attendance has fallen off in some places. Numerous lawsuits have been filed. Following this enormous earthquake, many are dazed, confused and angry.

I have been involved with the evaluation and treatment of priest sex offenders and their victims for about 15 years as a psychologist in professional clinical practice in Menlo Park, Calif. I have also published a number of academic papers, op-ed pieces and several edited books on this topic as a psychology professor at Santa Clara University. I have spoken to numerous academic, clerical and lay groups, as well as countless people in the print and television media about the clergy sexual abuse problem. I would like to suggest that there are five good reasons for hope that the Catholic Church and its members can look forward to recovery, healing and far fewer incidents of clergy abuse in the years ahead. I think that it is important to state these reasons for hope in anticipation of the release of the John Jay Report. Among the ruins, there is hope.

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1. We are not alone.

Tragically, the sexual abuse of children is not a new phenomenon, and perpetrators are not limited to Catholic priests. The best available data from a variety of reliable sources suggest that approximately 2 percent of Catholic priests have had a sexual encounter with a minor. The majority of victims were teenage boys who were fondled. There are about 60,000 active and retired priests and brothers in the United States at the present time. Over the past 50 years, the total amounts to approximately 150,000.

Research from St. Luke’s Institute in Maryland suggests that the average number of victims per clergy offender is about eight. Therefore, we should expect that during the past 50 years in the United States there have been about 3,000 offending priests or brothers and a total of about 24,000 victims. That is a big number. It appears, however, that this figure of 2 percent also applies to male clergy from other religious traditions and is likely lower than the number of sex-offending men in the general population who have ready access to minors.

Research conducted with other occupational groups who have both unsupervised power over and access to children (e.g., teachers, coaches, scout leaders) suggests that sexual abuse of children occurs in these groups at a frequency comparable to that among Catholic priests. Furthermore, quality research has demonstrated consistently that about 20 percent of American women and about 15 percent of American men report that they were victims of sexual abuse when they were children. We can expect, then, that approximately 48 million Americans (of the total 281 million) have been (or will be) sexually victimized as children. Research further informs us that there are about 100,000 new cases of child sexual abuse reported to authorities each year. The vast majority of cases, of course, are never reported to authorities.

Obviously, any sexual abuse of minors is horrific, immoral, unethical and illegal. To assume, however, that priests are much more likely to be sex offenders than men from other groups or from the general population is not supported by solid and current research data. Yet the general population, according to recent research, overestimates to a significant degree the number of priest sex offenders. It is true that we expect better behavior from priests than from other men. Still, while a small percentage of Catholic clergy have sexually engaged with minors, they have not done so in greater proportion than other men.

2. Cohort effect suggests fewer cases.

The New York Times conducted a remarkable investigation, published in January 2003, that examined all the credible allegations of sexual abuse by clergy in the American Catholic Church. One striking finding of this investigation was that the bulk of clerical sex offenders were ordained around the early 1970’s. The vast majority of the priests accused of sexually abusing children during the past several years tend to be in their late 50’s and 60’s, and the reported abuse occurred over 20 years ago. Sexual abuse by priests and others has occurred for centuries and, tragically, will not stop abruptly now or in the future. The data suggest, however, that there may be a cohort effect or something distinctive about priests who were ordained during the early 1970’s that puts these men at higher risk.

Why might this be? There are several possible reasons. First, many of these men, like generations before them, entered the seminary when they were youngsters. In the seminary environment they were unable to work through the complex issues of sexual development and expression in the same way that laypersons could. Sexual development and issues about sexual expression were generally not adequately evaluated before they were admitted into the seminary or dealt with once in formation. If someone had concerns about sexual impulses, he was generally told to take a cold shower, work harder and pray about it.

These men also entered religious life during the time of the Second Vatican Council and the sexual revolution in the United States. Many seminarians and priests were leaving religious life during this time as well. In fact, 1973 was the peak year for priests and seminarians leaving their vocation. It was a major turning point in the history of the Catholic Church in the United States and in American culture. Traditional boundaries and rules were broken overnight. Research suggests, for example, that about 23 percent of male psychotherapists were sexually involved with at least one of their patients during these years. This figure is closer to 2 percent today. It is probably not a random event that the majority of clergy accused of sexual misconduct are now about 60 years old and committed their offenses in the 1970’s. In fact, The New York Times investigation reported that abuse cases dropped off dramatically by the mid- to late 1980’s and 1990’s. A confluence of factors emerged during the 1970’s in the church and in American society that created an environment that placed these young men at higher risk for potential sexual misconduct. The good news about the cohort effect theory is that if it is true, we can expect a lower proportion of new abuse cases in the future.

3. Productive changes in church policy and practice

Long before the sexual abuse crisis dominated the press, many important and significant changes occurred in the selection and training of priests. Minor seminaries are no longer part of the American landscape. In the more than 150 psychological evaluations I have conducted during the past 15 years for people who wished to enter religious life, the average age of entry was about 30. Many of these men have had successful and satisfying intimate relationships and have grown and matured before seeking religious life. Seminaries, dioceses and religious orders now routinely hire qualified psychologists to conduct thorough psychological evaluations of applicants. Investigation of criminal records and other background checks are now standard operating procedure. Seminaries now offer training in sexuality, strategies for maintaining appropriate professional boundaries and ways to best manage problems and issues related to impulse control. Troubled seminarians and priests are typically referred for psychological evaluation and treatment by their religious superiors when symptoms first appear.

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The current crisis has forced all dioceses to follow new national guidelines from the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, including participation and cooperation with the John Jay study, about managing sexual abuse allegations against clergy, as well as procedures for the evaluation and treatment of both abuse victims and perpetrators. Religious orders have followed suit. All the dioceses and religious orders now have committees, comprised mostly of laypeople, that evaluate allegations of clergy misconduct. Many of these committees now include women, parents, victims of clergy abuse and people who have a great deal of professional expertise in treating cases of sexual abuse of children as psychologists, psychiatric nurses, police officers, criminal lawyers or family lawyers. I serve on several of these committees and consult with others. I am very pleased that the committees I am involved with include some members who are not Catholics, as well as the police chief of a large city, several canon lawyers and civil lawyers and many women and parents. These committees are advisory to the local bishop or religious superior. Church leaders would be imprudent to ignore their thoughtful collective wisdom. Finally, recent comprehensive research projects, like the John Jay study, provide much-needed data to guide child abuse prevention and future policy decisions. Although these numerous changes cannot eliminate all possibility of sexual abuse of a child by a priest, they clearly are significant steps in the right direction that will at least greatly minimize the possibility of future abuse.

4. Voice of the Faithful is here to stay.

The recent abuse crisis has ignited the sleeping Catholic laity in the United States. Voice of the Faithful is an excellent example. V.O.T.F. began as a grass-roots organization of Catholic laypeople in the Boston area following the clergy abuse crisis in that diocese. It quickly developed member branches across the United States and throughout the world that now represent about 40,000 members in 40 states and 21 countries. The growth, influence and active engagement of V.O.T.F. have been remarkable. Church structures and policies that concentrate decision making among the clergy and offer only advisory roles for the laity certainly do not encourage active engagement among rank and file Catholics. The recent crisis forced the laity to be more assertive with their church, and groups like Voice of the Faithful appear to be here to stay. This is good news, since it provides at least some degree of checks and balances on church authorities. A lively, active and involved laity can, in the end, only be productive for the church.

5. What is now in the light must stay in the light.

Now that the problem of sexual abuse by clergy has dominated the press, and words like “pedophile” and “ephebophile” have become familiar terms, it appears almost impossible for priests to find themselves in situations where sexual abuse can occur. Parents and others are much less trusting of a priest alone with a young person. Furthermore, the media, V.O.T.F. and others are watching much more closely now. In a nutshell, priests simply do not have the kind of unlimited trust and access to children they once had. This is unlikely to change in the foreseeable future. We clearly live in different times and with different sensitivities. Now that the spotlight has focused on sexual abuse by clergy, these issues cannot be hidden any longer. We have clearly come to realize that some priests and bishops behave badly, and we will not forget that the priesthood, like all human groups, is not immune from troubled men who can inflict harm on others.

Although the Catholic Church in the United States experienced a shattering earthquake, with many aftershocks and a great deal of destruction and damage, the church and those in it are rebuilding and recovering in a manner that will likely result in a much better, yet still far from perfect, church and community. Rebuilding after an earthquake takes time and patience. It does not happen overnight, and it does not happen smoothly. Recovery also provides a unique opportunity to rebuild in a way that gets it right this time. The sexual abuse crisis, although horrific and painful, ultimately will make for a better church, with far less possibility of future abuse of children by priests. There is indeed hope for a better tomorrow for the Catholic Church in the United States and for the many people who are involved with or touched by this remarkable organization. Keeping a close eye on Jesus and the lessons of the Gospel will also surely help us all to do the right thing as we rebuild and heal together.

Thomas G. Plante is a professor of psychology at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, Calif.

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Battle of sez yous peppers divorce

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Battling spouses who name-call during divorce proceedings had better watch developments over at Middlesex District Court, where a psychiatrist is suing her doctor husband over nasty things he wrote about her after they split.

“It’s the first time in Massachusetts where a wife has sued her husband in a meaningful way for the libel he committed,” said Monroe Inker, the attorney representing Karen R. Reeves of Cambridge.

According to Reeves’ complaint, her estranged hubby, Peter R. Maggs, a cardiovascular surgeon affiliated with Mount Auburn Hospital, Beth Israel Deaconess Hospital and New England Baptist Hospital, wrote a bitter letter about her and delivered it to her parents, neighbors, friends, colleagues and people at their daughter’s school.

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“The defendant deliberately published false written statements which would tend to hold the plaintiff up to scorn, hatred, ridicule and contempt in the minds of a considerable and respectable segment of the community, with knowledge that the statements were false….” the complaint states.

Both Maggs and his attorney, Richard Packenham, said they hadn’t seen the complaint, which was filed last week.

“How bizarre,” said Maggs, “but the behavior’s been bizarre.”

In his letter, Maggs also questioned his wife’s behavior and accused her of suffering from “some sort of a mental illness” because she applied for an abuse-prevention order against him.

“Let me say that I felt no malice toward Karen, who is in many ways a tragic person,” the letter states. “But I thought that she had done a miserable job of being a wife and a mother.”

Reeves, a psychiatrist and the director of research for a large international pharmaceutical company, says in her suit that her soon-to-be-ex’s letter omitted that he was barred from her home and contact with their daughter after a hearing, during which she gave testimony that he punched her, poured scalding water on her hands and threw objects at her.

“This is vindicating the rights of women who are parties in divorce cases and would grant more relief for torts committed apart from what happens in the divorce case,” Inker said.

File Under: Say What?

Leather pooches

If there’s any question in your mind that people have too much money, read on: Antonio Ansaldi, the Newbury Street leather clothier designers, has whipped up a new line of leather doggy wear.

The line, called “Doggie Style,” includes Italian calfskin coats with shearling collars and buttery lamb suede jackets with matching Persian lamb collars. Animals wearing animals, in other words.

But don’t think they’re just for sissy canines. Word is, SnoopDogg, who owns pitbulls, has ordered up leather raid vests for his pooches, to match his own!

File Under: Pet Project.

Side Tracks

News You Can Lose:

Sen. John McCain’s “Straight Talk Express” pulled up to the Fairmont Copley Plaza the other night just minutes after the last back was slapped at a fund-raiser for Sen. Ted Kennedy. Fear not, the GOP presidential candidate and the Massachusetts senior senator are quite chummy. McCain was the recipient of the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation’s Profiles in Courage Award a few years back.

Congrats to WBZ-TV legend Sarah Ann Shaw and ex-WRKO-AM guy Roger Allan, who will receive the Emerson College-RTNDA lifetime achievement awards April 1 at the Sheraton.

Roberta Chafetz, co-founder of Arlene & Roberta Fine Jewelry, Kathleen Doxer, co-founder of Frugal Fannie’s and Brian J. Kelly, co-founder of Atlantic Retail Properties, will be honored by The Wellness Community at its Gilda Radner Award Dinner April 6 at The Westin. The trio will be recognized for “engendering inspiration in cancer patients through their fight with the disease.”

And finally, celebrate Aril Fool’s Day with a “Ship Of Fools.” Boston comedian Steve Sweeney and his old pals Dick Doherty, Chance Langton and other local comics will do a variety show at the Berklee Performance Center April 1. WHDH-TV sports dude Gene Lavanchy, ex-Bruin Cam Neely, former Patriot Steve Nelson, WZLX-FM’s Charles Laquidara and many more will be along for the hilarity. Proceeds will go to prepay Sweeney’s funeral expenses. Really.

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Listen to the Inside Track on 96.9 FM Talk WTKK from 10 a.m. to noon weekdays. And drop dimes at trackgals@aol.com.

New England Patriots poobah Bill Belichick got his backfield in motion with honorary Boston WalkAmerica chairwoman Liz Brunnerfor the March of Dimes’ “WalkAmerica 2000” the other night at a kickoff event for the April 30 stride-a-thon. Also appearing at the pep rally for WalkAmerica volunteers was Boston Mayor Tom Menino, who welcomed the new coach to Boston – and, we assume, happily sent him on his merry way back to Foxboro when it was over. – STAFF PHOTO BY MARK GARFINKEL

>>> View more:  The abuse of children

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When the victim is a child

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Child abuse occurs at all economic and social levels. Resources are available to help neglected children and the adults who work with them. The more we learn about abuse, the better our society will become.

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Imagine that you are the judge in a very important trial. It’s important because it involves child abuse and the fate of a 6-year-old girl. Your job: to decide whether the parent of this child is guilty of abuse.

Sara was brought into the hospital unconscious. She had bruises all over her body, and there were burn marks on the palms of her hands. X-rays showed three old, healed fractures. Her mother said the bruises resulted from Sara falling down the stairs. The emergency room doctors said the bruises could not have come from a fall such as the mother described.

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Do you think Sara had been abused? If you say yes, you are correct. The mother later admitted that she and her boyfriend had beaten Sara when she wouldn’t go to bed on time. When they caught Sara playing with matches, they held her hands directly over the electric coils on the stove.

Abuse such as this is pretty obvious. There’s physical evidence, and physicians have learned a lot in recent years about differentiating wounds that are accidental from those that have been inflicted or purpose.

But don’t leave the judge’s chambers just yet. There are other kinds of abuse that are not so easy to determine, and sometimes need the wisdom of a modern-day Solomon. There is also neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and prenatal abuse.

Recognizing Abuse

Physical child abuse is bodily injury that comes from repeated beatings, kicking, burning, biting, shaking, and other assaults. It is the non-accidental, physical injury of a child, especially if it requires medical treatment. There are about 1 million cases reported each year, according to the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. More than 1,000 children die each year as a result of physical abuse.

It is not abuse when a parent slaps a child’s hand for playing with a knife, or spanks his bottom for running into the street. It is not abuse if a parent brushes a child aside, even if it’s done in anger. And anger itself is not abuse. Almost every parent gets angry at a child from time to time.

When Is It Neglect?

Neglect occurs when children are not fed, clothed, and housed adequately; not provided with proper medical care; or are left alone for long period with no adult supervision.

It is not neglect when a parent leaves a 10-year-old in the house while he or she goes to the store for an hour in the afternoon. State laws are often vague about the age at which a child can safely be left alone. How old do you think a child should be before he or she is allowed to come home alone after school? Many child experts say age 10 is the minimum, and even at that, not for all evening or through the night.

Emotional Abuse Hurts Too

Emotional abuse can result when adults humiliate a child, call him or her names, or give degrading punishments. Constantly calling a child ugly, stupid, or no good can be emotional abuse.

Tony is a fifth-grader who hates school because he has been verbally abused. His teacher read his test paper aloud to the class and made fun of Tony’s answers.

The mother who dressed her son as a pig and tied his hands behind him as punishment for stealing could be guilty of emotional abuse. In fact, that mother was taken to court and risked losing custody of her child. Her attorney said she was just a loving mother who made a mistake. A spokesperson for the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse said she was abusive. If you were the judge, would you rule that the boy was abused? Would you take him away from his mother? Would you order the mother to a pay a fine? To go for family counseling?

Until this century, the way parents treated their children was considered a private matter. No laws were enforced against child abuse. Today there are laws requiring physicians to report suspected child abuse to local child welfare agencies. So must teachers, social workers, school nurses, and other people who work in schools.

Protecting the Unborn

There are protective laws covering people from birth to old age. Now there is debate about protecting another age group–the yet unborn. There is something called perinatal abuse, meaning abuse while a child is still a fetus.

Pregnant women who use drugs can injure a fetus because drugs can cause premature birth, brain injury, and other birth defects. In the past few years “crack” babies–those whose mothers use crack cocaine while they are pregnant–have become a national concern. They are born addicted to cocaine and go through the pains of withdrawal as their tiny bodies get rid of the drugs. They are extremely sensitive, they cry a lot, and it is difficult to comfort them. Experts say they may grow up to be mentally retarded or have trouble learning.

Babies born to women who drink alcoholic beverages while pregnant may suffer from fetal alcohol sydrome, which is a condition that is second only to Down syndrome in causing mental retardation.

Guilty or Innocent?

Are these mothers guilty of abuse? Many parents are not even aware that drugs and alcohol can harm their babies. Many women drink or use drugs before they realize they are pregnant.

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Some of these mothers are being charged with criminal behavior. In Illinois a mother was charged with involuntary manslaughter because she used cocaine shortly before the birth of her baby. The baby was born prematurely and died two days later. This case, like most other cases of prenatal abuse, was dismissed.

But the debate continues. Some legal and health experts say that parents must be prosecuted so t hey understand that they cannot willingly harm their children–born or unborn. Others says chemical dependence is an illness, and we can’t make illness a crime. Still others point out that if we prosecute pregnant mothers they will stop seeking treatment programs as well as prenatal care. What do you say?

Who Abuses?f

Child experts say almost any parent can be brought to a point just short of abuse. Normal, loving parents can become frustrated, get angry, and think about harming their children. Most people are able to stop before they hurt their children. However, certain circumstances put parents at increased risk of abusing.

* They experienced family violence when they were children. Many researchers say this is the only factor that abusing parents have in common.

* They are isolated. They have no family or friends nearby to act as a support system. Often they call on their older children to care for the younger ones. Much child abuse comes from older siblings.

* They don’t understand child development. They may expect babies to behave like older children.

* They take the baby’s behavior personally. They think the baby is crying or wetting just to get back at the parent.

* They are under stress. Financial worries, marital problems, raising a child by oneself, and insecurites at work can all put parents under stress and make them less able to cope with the demands of a child. Reports of child abuse are greatest among poor, undereducated families. Teenage parents are especially vulnerable. But abuse occurs in every social and economic category.

* They don’t handle feelings well. They may not even realize they are getting angry until they explode and hit their child.

Every day we learn more about handling child abuse. That’s good for the children. It’s also good for the judges. And the parents. And all the young men and women who someday may face a crying child of their own.

>>> Click here:  Where can you turn

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Where can you turn

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A selection of the many resources for parents on the World Wide Web or available over the phone are listed. There is information about childbirth and first-time parenting, family conflicts and crises, age transitions, books, nutrition and many more helpful topics.

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AVID “TELE-PARENTS” WILL TELL YOU THAT THERE’S nothing like a phone jack and 16 megabytes of RAM for navigating the mysteries, hurdles and hassles of life with an infant or toddler. If only you had Netscape and a 28.8 modem–or at least speed-dial– they’ll say, you’d be surfing and dialing your way to parental bliss with all the child-rearing info that’s available by PC and phone. Are they batty? No. Just a little excited.

There are now more places than ever to phone for help when mothers and fathers feel parentally challenged. And the explosion of parenting Web sites and newsgroups that’s taken place on the Internet over the last five years is connecting families from household to household the way the telephone did for the first time in 1876. Only this time the advance in communications isn’t just overcoming distance and isolation. It’s conquering stigmas.

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Kate Ripley was nursing her newborn in her cabin half an hour outside Fairbanks, Alaska, when she found an online breast-feeding newsgroup. “I was really lonely,” she says. “It was a huge relief.” Now that Rory’s 9 months, the baby books are hinting that he’s eating too often. Ripley’s group (misc.kids.breasffeeding) says otherwise. “You don’t just want to have someone validate everything you think,” she says. “But it’s such a variety of voices, you can cull.” Even in Los Angeles, where there’s no such thing as a remote location, actor Brian Markinson logs on whenever he and his wife are stumped about their 9-month-old. “It’s another resource,” he says, “rather than call a doctor and feel like you’re being a pain.”

Technological alarmists, of course, take delight in warning that millions of modem-happy morns and dads will do nothing but produce millions of antisocial, monitor-gazing kids. A reliance on dial-tone parenting, they insist, keeps families, friends and neighbors from trading advice the did-fashioned way: in person. But a glance at all the live, wired interaction out there suggests that, so far, the alarmists are wrong.

On the Net

Usenet

alt.parenting and mist.kids Great places to start.on the Usenet–the Internet’s collection of newsgroups–for discussions on hundreds of topics from teething and breastfeeding to pets and snoring. Also, rec.arts.books.children is a 24-hour-a-day book group on children’s literature.

Childbirth.Org

http://www.childbirth.org Top discussion forums here, and a home page that gets right to the point on tough issues, including “Pregnancy & HIV,” “Having Your First Baby Over 35” and “Complications.”

Family.com http://www.family.com

Disney’s new site has been criticized for being more upscale than helpful. But their bulletin boards and chat rooms are filled with the voices of intelligent, caring parents. They must be doing something right.

ParenTalk Newsletter http://www.tnpc.com/ parentalk/index.html Clearly written articles by physicians and psychologists. What this site lacks in graphic creativity, it makes up for in sheer mass of information.

ParenthoodWeb http://parenthoodweb.com

Pediatricians and psychiatrists respond (in due time) to your e-mail. Meanwhile, they’ve posted their stock answers to anything-but-stock questions, including “Did we make a mistake by having a child?”

Parenting Q&A http://www.parenting-qa.com/

This site calls itself the only one on the Web “solely devoted to providing parents with answers to their most pressing questions.” It does answer questions faster than most other sites we tried. But it also offers essays on touchy subjects like spirituality, and suggests reading lists for kids, games for rainy days.

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ParentSoup http://www.parentsoup.com/

Excellent discussion forums address everything from stepparenting and disciplining closely spaced siblings to premature babies and children with attention deficit disorder.

Zero to Three http://www.zerotothree.org

The Washington, D.C.-based child-advocacy group has just launched its Web site. On it: a wealth of research and information on physical, cognitive and social development of infants and toddlers.

On the Phone Child Care Aware 800-424-2246 FREE

Operators refer parents anywhere in the country to licensed and accredited childcare centers in their area. They’ll also send, at no charge, an information packet on how to choose quality child care. Coordinated by the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies. Weekdays, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. CST. ChildHelp National Hotline 800-4-A-CHILD FREE

Twenty-four-hour advice and referrals for children and adults with questions or in crisis. Staffers with graduate degrees in counseling field calls on issues ranging from child-abuse prevention to whether it’s normal for a 3year-old girl to try urinating while standing up. (Yes, says a hotline counselor, it is.)

Gerber Information Line 800-443-7237 FREE

Tipper Gore’s recorded welcome message jolts you from thoughts of strained peas on this 24-hour consumer-tofo line (she reminds callers that doctors recommend having babies sleep on their backs). Moms, dads, grandparents — not nurses–work the phones, advising callers on nonmedical essentials like diapering, sleeping and “lots and lots of questions about food,” says one operator.

National Parent Information Network 800-583-4135 FREE

NPIN boasts the largest parenting database in the country. Researchers hunt down referrals, abstracts and answers–and send them free of charge–to hundreds of callers every month. Trouble with toilet training, the merits of co-op playgroups vs. private preschools, baby bowel movements: absolutely nothing is out of bounds here. Weekdays, 8 a.m.-5 p.m. CST.

Parents Anonymous 909-621-6184 (not toll-free)

The national office in Claremont, Calif., refers parents to 45 state and regional affiliates, which offer support groups, counseling, referrals. Weekdays, 8 a.m.-4:30 p.m. PST.

Single Parents Association 800-704-2102 FREE

This line, which has just gone national, helps parents find support groups and resources in their communities, fields questions on parenting skills and reminds single parents that they’re not alone. Weekdays, 9 a.m.-6 p.m. CST.

With T. TRENT GEGAX

>>> Click here:  The abuse of children

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The scientific war on child abuse

Abstract:

False charges against alleged child molesters have turned into big business for foster care families who receive $484 tax-free dollars from the government each month for each child taken in. Child molestation cases also have led to the abusive testing of sexual response in alleged molesters.

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The war on child abuse began in earnest in the 1980s, and the casualties are piling up, among them James Wade, an enlisted Navy man who had spent over $125,000 defending himself from false charges that nearly destroyed his family. A San Diego grand jury, drawn into the fray by Wade’s case, found that social workers had lied, falsified evidence, and disobeyed court orders, and that such actions were typical.

On the flimsiest of grounds, social workers can seize children, an action known in the trade as a “parentectomy.” The children are then farmed out to pliable therapists and foster parents. The grand jury confirmed that many foster parents are warehousing children to get federal money. Foster parents receive $484 a month for a child between the ages of 5 and 18, almost twice the amount a welfare mother receives for her own offspring. “Special-care” cases can bring up to $1,000 a month. All funds are tax free. The grand jury called it the “baby-brokering business.”

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The nation’s current “child protection” system began in the early 1970s with Walter Mondale’s Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, which created the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. As documented by Richard Wexler’s Wounded Innocents, the system is corrupt, incompetent, and motivated by anti-family zealotry. Wexler estimates that some one million Americans are falsely accused of child abuse each year. The child police, says Wexler, know these figures but do not cite them. Their jobs depend on the perception that child abuse is, as the National Center for the Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) puts it, “an American tradition.”

Certainly, the current standards for molestation would indict most, if not all, American families. Incorrect behavior includes: romping with the kids on the floor, showering or bathing with children, almost all forms of hugging and cuddling, and having a girl sitting on her father’s lap. In 1988 the NCPCA – a private organization – spent more than $2.5 million promoting the notion that parents are guilty of neglect if they allow their children to eat breakfast at McDonald’s too often, or if they are late picking children up after school.

If the accused abuser denies the charge, that only proves his guilt: it means he is “in denial,” a psychobabble incantation the child police use as a substitute for the Bill of Rights. Indeed, Minnesota prosecutor Kathleen Morris declared herself “sick to death of things like the presumption of innocence.”

Not that that presumption exists any longer in cases of alleged child abuse. It is the parent who must prove his innocence, which is why so many fathers accused of sexual abuse have subjected themselves to the penile plethysmograph test, used in San Diego County and in counties in a dozen other states in the Union.

In this test, which seems more in tune with A Clockwork Orange than with the principles of American jurisprudence, the man goes into a booth and attaches a mercury strain gauge to his penis. The gauge is designed to test the subject’s “erectile response,” and the machine then calibrates a “phallometric score.” What happens next can hardly be described in a family magazine, but an abbreviated account of a couple of cases will give the general idea.

Chris Friend, a computer specialist with a background in educational development, was skeptical of the test; but, having been accused of molestation in a family dispute, he was willing to do anything to clear his name and regain access to his children.

One of the tests used on Friend was a series of vignettes, narrated by the counselor over a musical soundtrack. One vignette dealt with a father performing oral sex on his daughter. In another, an adult male picks up several boys for sex. After every two or three molestation scenes, the counselor would throw in a vignette of normal sex. The counselor had told Friend to buzz him on the intercom after every story and tell him how he felt, but Friend, soon in tears, was unable to respond. The social worker, unmoved, warned him that if he didn’t give “the response we are looking for,” sound effects would be added. (This particular counselor – who claims not only to evaluate but also to offer “orgasmic reconditioning,” to help the subject “learn to become sexually responsible” – is currently trying to talk the Navy into letting him treat the Tailhook offenders. His material would probably have shocked most of the Tailhookers.)

The test offered to San Diego truck driver Reggie Germann had a video portion. After he had hooked up the plethysmograph, his testers lowered the lights and started flashing slides depicting various sexual activities, which Germann described as “ugly and degrading.” He was also asked to reply to more than seven hundred true/false questions, some of which he found rather startling:

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“I get more excitement and thrill out of hurting a person than I do from the sex itself.”

“I got the idea to rape while burglarizing apartments or houses.”

“I have had sex with an animal.”

“I have beaten a person during a sexual encounter.”

And, near the end, a light touch: “I have fantasized about killing someone during sex.”

Dr. Melvin G. Goldzband, director of forensic psychiatry at UC San Diego, cautions that, by itself, the plethysmograph “cannot and must not be used diagnostically.” Goldzband believes that there has been “a marked overuse” of the machine, which is sometimes accepted by courts. Psychologist John Adam argues that the plethysmograph is “bogus and unethical to use” because it can be fooled “mentally and physically.” As with the corruption-filled foster-care system, part of the problem is money: Chris Friend’s counselor, for example, charges $1,000 per session.

It is hard to see how the current system will improve until the financial incentives are changed, the presumption of innocence restored, and the child police held responsible for their actions. Evidence that the system is itself in denial came last April, when the California state government rejected a measure that would have lifted social workers’ unqualified immunity. Until some such measure is passed, social workers will continue to seize children first and ask questions later.

Mr. Billingsley has written for many publications, including Heterodoxy and The Spectator (London).

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Cannabis, conservatively: there’s a middle ground between prohibition and commercial production

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The election results suggest that the country is well on the way to fully legalizing not only the possession of cannabis for personal use but also its commercial production and sale. The voters seem to have concluded–decisively, though not enthusiastically–that, after trying marijuana prohibition for 80 years, it’s time to move to Plan B.

It’s not hard to see why: The illegal cannabis trade (and federal law makes it illegal everywhere in the country, whatever some states might choose to do) now generates about $40 billion a year in revenue for lawbreakers, about twice as much as the revenue from cocaine, the second-largest illicit-drug market. No one seems to have either a plan to cap that gusher of illicit cash or much enthusiasm for the massive enforcement effort that would be required to carry out such a plan. Resources aside, the human and social burden of making more than half a million arrests each year for marijuana possession for personal use, and keeping something like 30,000 people behind bars at any one time for cannabis dealing, seems a heavy price to pay for an effort–only partly successful–to reduce the number of people whose cannabis habit damages their lives.

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Still, the fact that change is necessary offers no guarantee that all the results of change will be benign. This is a case where we should listen to the counsel of Edmund Burke and Michael Oakeshott, who would advise us to adapt to new circumstances by making only as much institutional change as we need to, moving no faster than the situation requires, and making as few irreversible changes as possible.

Burke and Oakeshott would also warn us to beware of unintended consequences. Cannabis legalization will indeed provide a solution to the manifold ills of prohibition, but, as James Q. Wilson once observed, the chief cause of problems is solutions. We seem to be about to lurch all the way from making the cannabis trade a felony to making it an industry, as we did with alcohol and gambling. There are stopping places in between, and finding one of them might prevent a good deal of avoidable misery.

What happened on Election Night? Oregon and Alaska voters chose to legalize growing and selling cannabis without any medical pretext. In Washington, D.C., a new law will allow production for personal use and free distribution (“grow and give”). In Florida, a medical-marijuana law won a thumping 58 percent “yes” vote but fell short of the 60 percent required to pass. All of this happened in a midterm election, with an electorate tilted toward older voters, who view cannabis less favorably than do the younger people who vote in presidential years.

There’s more to come, including proposals in California and some other states in 2016. Vermont, where the legislature last year asked the governor for a set of legalization options, might become the first state to fully legalize cannabis through the normal legislative process rather than by voter initiative. At some point, even Congress might wake up and adjust the federal law to the new realities on the ground. More than 90 percent of cannabis-dealing cases are brought by state and local police and prosecutors; without their assistance, there’s no way 4,000 DEA agents can effectively get between a million or so pot-sellers and many millions of buyers.

None of this year’s results were unexpected: National polls show that a majority of Americans support cannabis legalization. But the change in public opinion that made the election results unsurprising was itself a surprise. The obvious comparison is to the rapid shift in opinion on same-sex marriage, but there are contrasts as well: Opinion about cannabis is less polarized along partisan and cultural lines, and the two issues differ radically in terms of why people want change. Support for marriage equality mostly reflects the affirmative belief that couples in which the partners are willing to commit to each other ought to have legal recognition for that commitment. Support for legalizing cannabis reflects not so much an enthusiasm about having people light up as unwillingness to keep paying the costs of the “war on weed.”

But if what the voters want is to shrink the illicit market and respect the liberty of adults to alter their own mood without asking permission, full commercialization of cannabis would overshoot the mark. Competitive, profit-driven enterprise has no equal in giving consumers what they want at the right price while also generating product innovation and deploying ingenious marketing to get people to buy what they didn’t know they wanted. That makes it a remarkably ill-designed mechanism for organizing the supply of goods and services whose primary market consists of those whose consumption is out of control.

Between 80 and 90 percent of cannabis consumption and revenues comes from about one-sixth of cannabis users: those who light up 21 or more times a month. As Jonathan Caulkins and Maria Cuellar of Carnegie Mellon University have calculated, that group has grown sevenfold over the past 20 years. About half of them, by their own report, meet clinical criteria for cannabis-use disorder: Their cannabis use is interfering with the rest of their lives.

An occasional, responsible cannabis consumer is of only negligible economic interest to a cannabis seller unless he has the prospect of developing into a near-daily user. That may be why the cannabis available in the quasi-medical market and the commercial markets in Washington and Colorado is much more potent than many casual users prefer: several times as potent, measured by its content of THC, as it was in 1979, the previous peak for heavy use. The people who buy most of the cannabis use so much so frequently that they have built up a tolerance and need super-strength material to get the effects they seek.

Is that really a consumer habit we want to see encouraged by Super Bowl advertising? The federal government, once it made cannabis legal, might find itself unable to restrict marketing, other than banning false claims and explicit appeals to minors.

There are ways to end prohibition without putting the full force of entrepreneurial ingenuity behind the cultivation of cannabis-use disorder. The Washington, D.C., “grow and give” law is one such option. Alternatively, consumers could form cooperative enterprises of limited size. Or cannabis sales could be restricted to nonprofits or public-benefit corporations with charter obligations to simply serve demand rather than trying to cultivate it, and to help their customers avoid falling into the drug-abuse trap.

Even under a for-profit model, there are ways to limit the growth in heavy use, especially heavy use by minors. It’s easy to prohibit juveniles from buying directly from state-licensed stores, and relatively easy to enforce that ban, but preventing lawful adult buyers from reselling to minors is almost impossible. After all, prohibition isn’t keeping minors from getting access today, and legalization would make every adult a potential supplier.

The best way to minimize problem cannabis use would be to keep prices high, by taxation or limits on production. As an illegal drug, cannabis is somewhat expensive, though still cheaper than beer per intoxicated hour. As a legal drug, the cannabis in a joint–now typically about $4 worth–would instead cost pennies before tax, just like a teabag or a tobacco cigarette.

That makes taxation as a percentage of the market price–the approach adopted in Washington and Colorado–a bad long-term strategy. Taxes should be based on the THC content of the product and designed to rise as market prices fall in order to keep the cost to the consumer somewhere near the current illicit price. As long as the prices are comparable, the illicit market can’t compete on convenience or quality. High prices won’t matter much to casual users but will help limit the growth in heavy use, especially among cash-constrained adolescents.

Price will be a particular issue now that Oregon has joined neighboring Washington in legalizing cannabis. Under current laws, Oregon cannabis will enjoy a tax advantage of about $75 per ounce over the Washington product, a differential big enough to support substantial smuggling. Officials from those two states should put their heads together to avoid the sort of massive illicit traffic that now carries untaxed cigarettes from Virginia to New York City.

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But price isn’t the only lever available. Point-of-sale and package-label information could be designed to educate consumers about the risks of problem use. Cannabis sales clerks could be trained in substance-abuse prevention. We could also adopt a “nudge” strategy by requiring every user to set a personal weekly or monthly limit and requiring vendors to refuse sales to people who have gone over the amount they set for themselves.

None of this is guaranteed to work. In the face of inevitable uncertainty, a conservative approach to cannabis legalization would be cautious, experimental, and incremental.

But that sort of conservatism seems to be in short supply. Right now, most cultural conservatives simply oppose any form of legal availability, which takes them out of the conversation about how to legalize responsibly. Libertarians reflexively favor low taxes and loose regulations. Thus advocates of full-on legalization have no incentive to compromise, since doing so would bring them no new support. Liberal voters tend to back legalization as a means of reducing the damage done by arrest and incarceration while increasing personal liberty, though there is dissent from some public-health paternalists. On both sides of the aisle, the debate is focused on whether to legalize rather than how to legalize.

As is usual in a polarized debate, neither legalizers nor prohibitionists are willing to acknowledge the disadvantages that go with the policies they prefer, and neither makes adequate allowance for the unknown and the unexpected. As a result, there is no politically potent organized backing for temperate cannabis policies. Such policies are easy to grasp and support widely shared values, but for now they lack a leader to put them on the political agenda. This means that we are likely to get locked in to alcohol-style legalization through a succession of disconnected state-level decisions.

Is there an Oakeshottian in the house?

Mr. Kleiman is a professor of public policy at the UCLA Luskin School of Public Affairs and one of the authors of Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know. His firm, BOTEC Analysis, advised the Washington State Liquor Control Board on the implementation of Washington’s legal cannabis market.

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